Computer Networking Tutorial

"Network" is short for "interconnection." We can say that two or more things are interconnected when they are joined together. In other words, they are linked together.

It means that anything that is linked together is referred to as a "network" or "interconnected." Consider the following scenario: a group of people.

Real Life Example of Computer Network

When a person is involved in a multi-level marketing business and has a large number of contacts who are also involved in the same business, that person can claim to have a large network. Second, imagine a large corporation with numerous offices that are all connected by a network.

In the world of information technology, a network is a collection of devices, points, or computers that are linked together via any communication path. Communication paths can be wireless or wired in this case, for example:

  • wired
    • Twisted Pair Cable
    • Coaxial Cable
    • Optical Fibers
  • wireless
    • Microwave
    • Radio Wave
    • Satellite Microwave
    • Infrared
    • Laser

To put it another way, we can refer to a collection of computing devices as being part of a computer network if those devices are interconnected with one another.

Everyone in the modern world makes use of the computer network in some capacity, whether directly or indirectly. If you use a financial institution like a bank, for instance, you are making indirect use of the network. You are making use of the network every time you use your ATM card to withdraw money from your bank account.

Our computer network is a collection of computers, various hardware components, and other hardware devices that are connected to one another via wired or wireless connections via any channel. The purpose of these connections is for the computers to share the information and resources that they have. If they do this, then it means that they are interconnected, and if they use and share their resources and information, then we referred to them as "networked."

When any two devices are interconnected with one another and called a network, this is an illustration of the most basic form of network.

But in order to make a network out of two computers, you need to not only connect them to each other but also allow them to exchange the information and resources that they have. For example, if a printer is connected to a computer, another computer that is directly connected to the first computer will also be able to use the printer that is connected to the first computer.

Message to the Reader or Viewer

As I briefly described the topics covered in this "computer networking course," it is intended for beginners. I attempted to cover nearly all of the important topics covered in the course "computer networks." In addition, I don't believe this course will require much of your time to understand the fundamentals of computer networking. So, without further ado, let's get started.

This "computer networking course" is divided into the sections listed below:

where the first three, which are "computer network applications," "evolution of networking," and "networking terminology," are described in this post, whereas the remaining topics are described in separate articles, starting from the next post.

Computer Network Applications

Networks can be used for a variety of purposes, including sharing, accessing a remote desktop or database, and providing communication services.

In today's world, computer networks are extremely useful. Almost everything nowadays involves a computer network, such as using ATM cards, booking tickets, and so on.

Computer networks have had a significant impact on society as a whole. We will only cover a few of the most important network applications here:

Sharing via Network

A network's sole purpose is to facilitate the exchange of information between its nodes. Sharing information is made much simpler and more adaptable as a result of the existence of networks.

There are three distinct forms of sharing, and they are as follows:

  • The cost of peripherals can sometimes be quite high. It would be impractical for every computer connected to a network to have both a laser printer (for producing high-quality prints) and a dot-matrix printer (for all general printouts). It is possible for a main frame to have one of each connected to it, which provides users with controlled access in a manner that is both cost-effective and efficient.
  • Users of a multi-user system are able to share and trade their information in a variety of different ways. For instance, the ability to send and receive electronic mail or to have restricted access to certain documents or databases
  • When it comes to traditional time-sharing systems, all control is performed centrally, which means that if the processor stops working, the entire system is rendered useless. Distributed control refers to a situation in which the failure of one node does not have an effect on the functioning of the other nodes in the network. This is a very active area of research at the moment.

Access to Remote Database

You can share or access other computers on the same network if you are connected to a network. This section will teach you how to transfer data from one computer to another if you are connected to a network.

You can use your computer to fully control another computer. You can remotely access a computer's data from another computer if you are connected via wifi or a wired connection.

You will learn how to remotely access a computer from another computer connected to a LAN. You will learn how to remotely access Windows 7 and Windows 8.

Assume a network has two laptops, one with Windows 7 and one with Windows 8, and a desktop is also connected to the same LAN.

The desktop is wire-connected to a LAN, and both laptops are also wire-connected to the same LAN but via wifi.

How to Gain Remote Access (Windows 8)

The "Network" icon can be found on the Windows 8 desktop. If you can't find the networking icon, right-click on the desktop and select "personalize." A new window will be launched. A Change desktop icon can be found in the upper left corner of the window. You must select the Change Desktop Icon option. After clicking this, you will see a new small window appear. In this window, mark the network, then run the application, click OK, and close both windows. The Network icon can be found on your Windows 8 desktop.

If, after doing so, the network icon still does not appear on the desktop, click on the This PC icon on the Windows 8 desktop. A Network option can be found on the left side of the menu. Simply select the network menu. When you click on the network, all of the computers that are connected to the network are displayed. After you click the network button, your computer appears in the computer list alongside other computers that are connected to the same network.

To access another computer's remote desktop, right-click on that computer and then select the Connect with Remote Desktop connection option. When you click the Connect with Remote Desktop Connection button, a small window will appear asking for your username and password. Now enter your username and password, and then click the OK button. After clicking the OK button, a small window asking for security will appear; simply click the Yes button on this small window. After clicking the yes button, a new window will appear, displaying the computer that you have just remotely accessed.

This is the desktop of the computer that you are now remotely accessing. You can now access and use anything on that computer, including documents and files. Because you have just accessed it remotely, you can also change anything on that computer using your computer.

How to Gain Remote Access (Windows 7)

To access another computer on the same LAN using this previously accessed Windows 7 computer, go to the Network menu using this Windows 7 PC once more (that is now remotely accessed by the Windows 8 PC).

In Windows 7,

  • go to the start menu, then control panel, and then network and sharing centre.
  • Simply select this option. You can find the network to which this computer is connected by clicking on the network and sharing centre.
  • Now, click on that network, and you will see all of the computers that are connected to it.
  • Right-click on the computer you want to access remotely and select Connect to another computer.
  • Select the Connect with remote desktop connection option after right-clicking on that computer.
  • Then enter the username and password to gain remote access to that computer.
  • When you notice the computers in the network.
  • Then you'll notice that each computer has an icon and a name.
  • Then the icon is the computer icon, and the name is the computer's name.
  • To change the names of computers connected to the same LAN, click on the My Computer icon on the desktop and then go to properties.
  • The Change setting is located on the right bottom side.
  • When you click on the Change Settings button, a new small window will appear.
  • Then click Change, then enter the name, and finally click the Ok button.
  • If the computer then requests a restart, simply perform one to successfully change the computer's name.

Communication Facilities

You can also use your network as a communication medium for both local and Internet-based communication.

Everyone (including inexperienced computer users) can send and receive electronic mail. This message may include text, images, videos, audios, documents, or other files.

Using the network as a communication tool can help you save energy, money, and time.

Evolution of Networking

The evolution of networking began in 1969 with the creation of the first network, known as ARPANET, which led to the creation of the Internet.

Let us begin with ARPANET in the following section.

ARPANET

The United States Department of Defense funded a project in 1969. ARPANET was the name of that project. ARPANET is an acronym that stands for Advanced Research Projects Agency Network.

The goal of launching the ARPANET project at the time was to connect computers at various universities and the US Department of Defense.

Shortly after starting the ARPANET project, the engineers, scientists, students, and researchers who were a part of it began exchanging data and messages on it.

ARPANET began with a handful of computers exchanging data and messages from one computer to another via the ARPANET. Later, ARPANET grew rapidly, and in the mid-1980s, another federal agency, the National Science Foundation, established a new high-capacity network. The network was known as NSFnet. NSFnet was more powerful than ARPANET.

On its network, NSFnet only permitted academic research. NSFnet was not permitted to conduct any private business. As a result, some private companies established their own networks. These networks were eventually linked with the ARPANET and NSFnet to form the Internet.

It was the internet at the time. In other words, the interconnection of these two and possibly other networks. To put it another way, the ARPANET, NSFnet, and a few other private networks. It was dubbed "the Internet."

The ARPANET and NSFnet were both decommissioned in 1990 and 1995, respectively. To put it another way, the government stops funding these networks. However, commercial internet services emerged and continue to power the Internet.

Internet

One could describe the Internet as a global network consisting of other computer networks. ARPAnet, which was the very first computer network, eventually gave way to the Internet.

There are far too many networks that make up the Internet. Every network is managed by a different company, but they can all communicate with one another through peering points.

You could also say that the Internet is an interconnection of a variety of different sized networks located all over the world.

The Internet is a large network that connects many smaller networks together and enables information sharing between all of the computers that are connected to it. In order to achieve this goal, all of the computers that are connected to the Internet will need to adhere to the same guidelines for communication. These rules are also referred to as protocols, and the set of protocols that are utilized by the Internet is referred to as TCP/IP, which is an abbreviation for Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol.

Use of the Internet

Users connected to one network can use the Internet to communicate with users connected to other networks. This is the primary function of the Internet.

How does the Internet function?

The majority of computers that are connected to the Internet are not directly connected to the network. Instead, they are connected to the smaller networks, which are then connected to the Internet backbone through various gateways. A gateway is a device that is used to connect networks that are not of the same type. And a backbone is a central interconnecting structure used to connect one or more networks, similar to how a person's spine connects their torso to the rest of their body.

The following is a list of steps that illustrate how the internet works:

  • The message, file, or documents that are going to be sent to another computer are first broken up into very small parts called "packets" at the computer that is serving as the source. In most cases, a packet will have some information within it.
  • Each packet receives a number in a sequential order. Consider the numbers 1, 2, and 3.
  • At this point, each of the packets is forwarded to the address of the computer that will receive them.
  • And the computer at the destination will receive those packets in an unpredictable order. In this particular scenario, if a packet is lost, it will be requested once more.
  • The original message, file, or document is obtained by reassembling the packets in the order in which they were numbered. This is necessary due to the fact that the packets arrive at the destination computer in an unpredictable order.

Interspace

InterSpace is a client-server software program that, in its most basic form, enables multiple users to communicate with one another online through the use of real-time audio, video, or text chat in three-dimensional environments that are constantly changing.

Did you know ? - InterSpace offers the most cutting-edge method of communication that can currently be accomplished over the Internet.

To put it another way, the InterSpace is a vision of what the Internet will become in the future.

Network Terminology at a Glance

You will learn about the essential components or terms used in networking in this section.

When we refer to a network, we are referring to the hardware and software that comprise the network. Now, let's take a look at some of the most common network hardware components:

In separate sections, you will learn about all three of the above-mentioned typical network hardware components. The first two components are described in the following two sections, while the "NIA" is described in a separate article.

Nodes (Workstations)

Nodes are the individual computers that are part of a network and are actively looking to share the resources that are available through that network. And in the event that there were no nodes at all, the network would cease to exist.

Nodes are also sometimes referred to as workstations.

Server

A computer that acts as a hub for the distribution of information, software, and other types of networked resources (including printers, modems, and other similar devices) is known as a server.

Sometimes on smaller networks, everything that can be shared, including files, data, software, and so on, is kept on a single computer that is referred to as a server.

A network may also contain more than one server, and since each server on the network is given a name that is exclusive to the network, the users of the network are able to recognize the server by its exclusive name.

Types of Server

There are two categories of servers, both of which are described in this section:

Dedicated Server

A dedicated server is essentially a computer that is reserved for the job of the server. Its one and only job is to assist workstations in gaining access to data, software, and hardware resources on larger network installations. A dedicated server does not also function as a workstation.

"Master-slave" networks are the name given to the types of networks that make use of dedicated servers.

It is also possible for a network to contain multiple servers, which makes it possible for workstations to share specific resources. For instance, there might be a server whose sole purpose is to fulfill requests pertaining to files, such as storing them, determining who has access to which files, and controlling the amount of storage space available to each individual user. A file server is an example of this type of server. In a similar vein, there might also be a server for printing and a server for modems.

A number of workstations have printing needs, which are met by the printer server, which is responsible for or takes care of those needs.

The modem server enables a group of network users to more effectively communicate over long distances by utilizing a modem.

Non-dedicated Server

On smaller networks, a workstation that also functions as a server is known as a non-dedicated server. Dedicated servers are used on larger networks. Because it does not give its full attention to the mission of serving, this type of server is known as a "non-dedicated server."

These servers make it possible for workstations to share resources on a more manageable scale, which can be proportionally smaller.

Because a single computer serves both as a workstation (also known as a "node") and a server, it operates at a slower speed and requires additional memory.

Peer-to-peer networks are a type of small network that connects users directly, rather than through a central server.

Computer Networking Quiz


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