Network Components needed for various types of Networks

The purpose of compiling and publishing this article was to provide a list of network components that are necessary for a variety of different kinds of networks.

Following that, this article includes a network comparison chart and a table containing the transmission speed of various types of cables. Finally, this article includes a section in which we will learn which type of transmission medium is used when.

Building a small LAN

In order to construct a local area network (LAN), we will need the following network components:

  • Client computers with NICs installed
  • Server
  • Hub
  • Cabling
  • Software for Networking Operating Systems

For Connecting Offices and Documents

  • Client with NICs installed
  • Servers
  • Hubs
  • Switch
  • Cabling
  • Network Operating System Software
  • Router for shared Internet access

In the list that was just presented, the Internet router that allows for shared access is not required.

For connecting dispersed office sites

  • Clients with NICs installed
  • Servers
  • Hubs
  • Switches
  • Routers at each location for WAN connections and shared Internet access
  • Access server for dial-up access for remote users
  • Cabling
  • WAN service (ISDN, leased line, etc.)
  • Network OS software

After the above checklists, now here are some tables given to show a brief description and performance comparison of various network types (these are standard names for networks), the technology they use, and the speeds supported by various cable types.

Infrared technologies vary widely. They can be used for transmitting data between PDAs or cell phones.

This technology typically connects at a speed of about 115 kbps, while advanced technologies for connecting two networks together between buildings can run as high as 10 kbps and extend several miles.

Windows XP supports VFIR, which stands for Very Fast Infrared, which can transmit at up to 16 Mbps.

Network Comparison Chart

The following table compares various types of networks:

Network Type Cabling Connector Maximum Length Speed
10Base5 RG-8 or RG-11,
Thicknet coaxial
AUI/DIX 500 meters (1640 ft) 10 Mbps
10Base2 RG-58,
Thinnet coaxial
BNC connector 185 meters (607 ft) 10 Mbps
10BaseT Cat 3,4,5,5e,6
twisted pair
RJ-45 100 meters (328 ft) 10 Mbps
100Base-TX Cat 5,5e,6
twisted pair RJ-45 100 meters (328 ft) 100 Mbps
100Base-FX Fiber Optic ST,SC Connectors for fibre optic cables 2 Kilometers (6562 feet) 200 Mbps
100Base-T-Gigabit Ethernet CAT 5,5e,6 RJ-45 100 meters (328 ft) 1 Gbps
802.11b Wireless No cabling.
Uses Access Point (AP) for connection
150+feet 11 Mbps
802.11g Wireless No cabling.
Uses Access Point (AP) for connection
150+feet 54 Mbps
Infrared N/A No cabling.
Uses direct line of sight connections
Varies Up to 16 mbps

Transmission Speeds of Cables

The following table lists the transmission speeds of the various cable types:

Transmission Medium Transmission Speed
Thicknet Coaxial 10 Mbps
Thinnet Coaxial 10 Mbps
Cat 2 twisted pair 4 Mbps
Cat 3 twisted pair 10 Mbps
Cat 4 twisted pair 16 Mbps
Cat 5 twisted pair 100 Mbps
Cat 5e twisted pair 1 Gbps
Cat 6 twisted pair 10 Gbps
Fiber Optic 100 Mbps - 2 Gbps
802.11b 11 Mbps
802.11g 54 Mbps

Choosing a suitable transmission medium

When it is necessary for us to adhere to the following criteria, we should make use of twisted-pair cable:

  • It is inexpensive.
  • Simple to Install: Simple to Use
  • There are no high-speed data requirements; the data rate is low. Data rate is limited to 100 MHz, and bandwidth is limited to 1 MHz.
  • Short-distance transmission.

Here is a list of some critical considerations when using twisted pair cables:

  • If analogue transmission is used, amplifiers are required every 5 to 6 kilometres.
  • Repeaters are required every 2 km to 3 km with fast Ethernet, or every 100 metres if used for digital transmission.
  • Prone to interference and noise.

Coaxial cable should be used when:

  • Television signal distribution is required.
    • Ariel TV
    • Cable TV
  • Long-distance telephone transmission is required; it can carry 10,000 voice calls at the same time.
  • Short-distance computer system links are required.
  • Some computers will be linked together to form local area networks.

Here is a list of some important considerations when using coaxial cables:

  • If analogue transmission is used, amplifiers are required every 5 to 6 kilometres.
  • Repeaters are required every 1 km if digital transmission is used.

Fibre Optics should be used when:

  • Greater data capacity is required at data rates of hundreds of GB/s.
  • Attenuation must be reduced.
  • Transmission security is desired.
  • Cost is irrelevant; guided media are the most expensive.

Here's something to keep in mind when using fibre optics:

  • Greater repeater spacing: at least 10 km, requiring a repeater every 10 km.

Choose radio waves when:

  • Long distances are to be covered.
  • Signals must be able to pass through walls and buildings.
  • The transmission must be omnidirectional, that is, in all directions.

Here's something to keep in mind when using radio waves:

  • There are risks to one's health.

Choose a microwave when:

  • It is important that transmission take place in a particular direction along a straight path.
  • Long-distance phone calls can be made using this medium, which is less expensive than other forms of unguided media.

When making use of a microwave, it is vital to keep in mind the following important consideration:

  • Repeaters are necessary every 30 miles due to line-of-sight transmission, and stations are required every 30 miles due to the curvature of the earth. Both of these requirements must be met.

Choose satellite when:

  • Long-distance television distribution and long-distance telephone transmission are both possible when the transmission must take place over a very large area of Earth.

Here is a list of some important considerations when using satellite:

  • Towers and repeaters are expensive.
  • Interferences such as passing planes and rain are possible.

When to use infrared:

  • You want to transmit without having to deal with licensing issues; no license is required.

Here's something to keep in mind when using infrared:

  • can't get through solid walls

Computer Networking Quiz

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